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缓冲与催化:希望在大学生自杀行为中的调节作用

朱虹 杨向东 吴冉

朱虹, 杨向东, 吴冉. 缓冲与催化:希望在大学生自杀行为中的调节作用[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2019, 37(4): 154-163. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.014
引用本文: 朱虹, 杨向东, 吴冉. 缓冲与催化:希望在大学生自杀行为中的调节作用[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2019, 37(4): 154-163. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.014
Zhu Hong, Yang Xiangdong, Wu Ran. The Moderating Effect of Hope on Suicide Behavior Among College Students[J]. Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 2019, 37(4): 154-163. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.014
Citation: Zhu Hong, Yang Xiangdong, Wu Ran. The Moderating Effect of Hope on Suicide Behavior Among College Students[J]. Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 2019, 37(4): 154-163. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.014

缓冲与催化:希望在大学生自杀行为中的调节作用

doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2019.04.014
基金项目: 

上海市学校德育实践研究课题"大学生自杀潜在风险的识别和预警研究" 2018-D-230

The Moderating Effect of Hope on Suicide Behavior Among College Students

  • 摘要: 研究大学生自杀行为机制及其保护性因素,对于大学生自杀行为的预防和临床具有重要现实意义。本研究采用结构方程建模方法,以自杀的人际关系理论为依据,考察希望在大学生自杀行为中的作用机制。研究发现,自杀人际关系理论的潜变量模型能较好拟合我国大学生自杀行为数据。自我累赘感知和归属感受挫显著影响大学生自杀行为,且具有叠加效应。习得的自杀能力,尤其是死亡恐惧感的降低,对大学生自杀行为也有显著影响。希望对大学生自杀行为存在缓冲和催化两种调节作用。当个体心理状态恶化时,高希望水平会起到一个缓冲的作用,降低自杀意愿和行为产生的可能;但在同样情况下,如果个体缺乏希望或绝望悲观,则会起到一个催化作用,放大对自杀行为的影响力度。随着个体心理状态恶化程度的提高,这两种机制的作用逐渐增强。研究发现对我国高校大学生自杀行为的临床或预防具有重要现实指导意义。
  • 图  1  IPTS——人际心理状态和习得的自杀能力对自杀行为的预测

    注:RMSEA=0.033,SRMR=0.041,CFI=0.938,TLI=0.929;*P < 0.05;**P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001

    图  2  IPTS——自我累赘感知和归属感受挫的交互作用

    注:n/s=non-significant; *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001

    图  3  希望作为调节变量在自杀愿望影响自杀行为中的作用

    图  4  不同希望水平上自我累赘感知和归属感受挫对自杀行为的预测作用

    表  1  研究所用量表测量模型的构建

    量表 采用的测量模型及对应题目 模型拟合指标
    RMSEA SRMR CFI TLI
    人际需求
    量表(INQ)
    两因子模型 0.049
    90%CI(0.046,0.052)
    0.034 0.946 0.931
    自我累赘感知(题目2,3,4,5,6)
    2.最近,我觉得如果没有我的话,我身边的
    人会更开心一些
    3.最近,我觉得自己是社会的负担
    4.最近,我在想我的死对我身边的人来说可
    能会是个解脱
    5.最近,我在想我身边的人希望能够摆脱我
    6.最近,我认为对我身边的人来说我把事情
    变得更糟糕了
    归属感受挫(题目7,8,10,11, 13,14,15)
    7.最近,其他人都很关心我
    8.最近,我觉得自己有归属感
    10.最近,我觉得很幸运能够拥有许多关心
    和支持我的朋友
    11.最近,我觉得和他人没有关联
    13.最近,我觉得在有需要的时候我有很多
    人可以求助
    14.最近,我和其他人关系比较亲近
    15.最近,我每天至少有一次满意的人际交往
    习得的自杀
    能力量表(ACSS)
    两因子+方法因子模型 0.058
    90%CI(0.055,0.062)
    0.041 0.952 0.941
    降低的死亡恐惧(题目7,8,10,11,13,14,19)
    7.即便我知道自己快要死了,也不会怎么影
    响到我
    8.死亡过程带来的痛苦会让我感到害怕
    10.我非常害怕死
    11.当人们谈论死的时候不会让我焦虑
    13.想到我自己死的情景会引起我的焦虑
    14.当我知道生命即将结束的时候,我没有
    感到不安
    19.我根本不害怕死
    提高的躯体痛苦忍受性(题目1,4,5)
    1.绝大多数人害怕的事情我不会害怕
    4.我比绝大多数人能忍受多得多的痛苦
    5.人们认为我胆子大
    方法因子(题目8,10,13)
    希望量表(HS) 单因子模型(题目1,2,4,6,8,9,10) 0.07390%CI(0.067,0.078) 0.035 0.957 0.936
    1.我能想到许多方法摆脱困境
    2.我精力充沛地追求我的目标
    4.任何问题都有许多解决方法
    6.我能想到许多方法去得到我生命中最重
    要的东西
    8.即使其他人灰心丧气了,我知道我仍然能
    够找到一种解决问题的方法
    9.我过去的经历已经为我的未来做好了准
    10.我已经相当成功了
    自杀行为
    量表(SBQ-R)
    单因子模型(原量表的4个题目) 0.009
    90%CI(0.000,0.028)
    0.006 0.999 0.997
    题目1:你曾经想过或者尝试过自杀吗?
    1.从来没有
    2.只是一个稍纵即逝的念头
    3a.我至少有一次有过计划自杀,但没有尝试
        去做
    3b.我至少有一次有过计划自杀,并且真的想
        去死
    4a.我曾经尝试自杀,但不想死
    4b.我曾经尝试自杀,并且真的希望死
    题目2:过去的一年里你有多频繁地想到过
                自杀?
    1.从来没有2.很少(1次) 3.有时(2次)
    4.经常(3 -4次)
    5.非常频繁(5次或以上)
    题目3:你曾经告诉过某个人你打算实施自
                杀吗?
    1.没有
    2a.是的,有过一次,但不是真想死
    2b.是的,有过一次,并且真想这么做
    3a.是的,不止一次,但不想这么做
    3b.是的,不止一次,并且真想这么做
    题目4:有多大的可能性有一天你会尝试自
                杀?
    0.绝不会1.根本没机会2.不太可能
         3.不可能
    4.可能5.相当可能6.非常可能
    下载: 导出CSV
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