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家长学习参与和中小学生学业成绩的关系研究

李佳哲 胡咏梅

李佳哲, 胡咏梅. 家长学习参与和中小学生学业成绩的关系研究[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2021, 39(7): 72-83. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.007
引用本文: 李佳哲, 胡咏梅. 家长学习参与和中小学生学业成绩的关系研究[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2021, 39(7): 72-83. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.007
Li Jiazhe, Hu Yongmei. A Study on the Relationship between Parental Learning Involvement and Academic Performance of Primary and Secondary School Students——Based on the Analysis of a Moderating Model with Mediator about Parent-Child Relationship and Students’ Learning Confidence[J]. Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 2021, 39(7): 72-83. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.007
Citation: Li Jiazhe, Hu Yongmei. A Study on the Relationship between Parental Learning Involvement and Academic Performance of Primary and Secondary School Students——Based on the Analysis of a Moderating Model with Mediator about Parent-Child Relationship and Students’ Learning Confidence[J]. Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 2021, 39(7): 72-83. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.007

家长学习参与和中小学生学业成绩的关系研究

doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.007
基金项目: 北京师范大学教育学部2019年学生科研基金项目“中小学生家长如何有效参与子女的学习和生活?——家长参与对中小学生发展的影响机制研究”(1912205)
  • ①通过“我相信自己能在考试中取得好成绩”一题对学生学习自信心进行测量,采用5点计分(1=非常不同意,2=不同意,3=不确定,4=同意,5=非常同意),本研究处理为连续变量。
  • ②“家长学习参与”得分由家长学习参与量表所有题项以载荷量为权重合成。为连续变量,值越大,说明家长学习参与频率越高。
  • ③参考PISA、TIMSS等大型国际测试的做法,“区域教育质量监测”项目的各科成绩均采用项目反应理论(IRT)来进行估算,并将其转化为均值500、标准差100的标准分。
  • ④小学五年级学生学业成绩由语文、数学、科学成绩标准化后求均值合成。初中九学生学业成绩由语文、数学、外语、科学、人文成绩标准化后求均值合成。值越大,说明学生学业表现越好。
  • ⑤小学生亲子关系均值得分为3.332,标准差为0.544。中学生亲子关系均值得分为3.077,标准差为0.561,极小值为1,极大值为4。我们按均值分组,若亲子关系得分高于均值则定义为亲子关系较好组,反之,则定义为亲子关系较差组。
  • 图1模型中未呈现学生学习压力、性别、是否独生子女、是否住宿生、是否来自完整家庭、学校学生平均SES、生师比、高级职称教师比例等控制变量对学生学业成绩的影响系数结果。

A Study on the Relationship between Parental Learning Involvement and Academic Performance of Primary and Secondary School Students——Based on the Analysis of a Moderating Model with Mediator about Parent-Child Relationship and Students’ Learning Confidence

  • 摘要: 家庭教育对于中小学生的学业成绩具有重要影响。文章采用HLM模型和路径分析模型探究中小学生家长学习参与对子女学业成绩的影响,研究发现:(1)小学生学业成绩随着家长学习参与频率的增加而提高,而初中生家长学习参与频率与子女学业成绩之间呈现“倒U”型关系。(2)对于亲子关系较好的小学生,家长学习参与频率的增加有利于其学业成绩的提升;但对于亲子关系较差的中小学生,家长要适度控制其参与子女学习的频率,以促使子女获得良好的学业成绩。(3)学习自信心在中小学生家长学习参与和子女学业成绩之间发挥中介作用。(4)亲子关系在中小学生家长学习参与和子女学习自信心之间发挥调节作用,并进而对子女的学业成绩产生积极影响。由此,建议中小学生家长构建和谐的亲子关系,初中生家长适度控制对子女学习的参与频率,采用适合子女的学习参与方式,努力提升学习参与质量。此外,在参与子女学习的过程中,要注重鼓励式教育提升子女的学习自信心。
    1)  ①通过“我相信自己能在考试中取得好成绩”一题对学生学习自信心进行测量,采用5点计分(1=非常不同意,2=不同意,3=不确定,4=同意,5=非常同意),本研究处理为连续变量。
    2)  ②“家长学习参与”得分由家长学习参与量表所有题项以载荷量为权重合成。为连续变量,值越大,说明家长学习参与频率越高。
    3)  ③参考PISA、TIMSS等大型国际测试的做法,“区域教育质量监测”项目的各科成绩均采用项目反应理论(IRT)来进行估算,并将其转化为均值500、标准差100的标准分。
    4)  ④小学五年级学生学业成绩由语文、数学、科学成绩标准化后求均值合成。初中九学生学业成绩由语文、数学、外语、科学、人文成绩标准化后求均值合成。值越大,说明学生学业表现越好。
    5)  ⑤小学生亲子关系均值得分为3.332,标准差为0.544。中学生亲子关系均值得分为3.077,标准差为0.561,极小值为1,极大值为4。我们按均值分组,若亲子关系得分高于均值则定义为亲子关系较好组,反之,则定义为亲子关系较差组。
    6)  ⑥图1模型中未呈现学生学习压力、性别、是否独生子女、是否住宿生、是否来自完整家庭、学校学生平均SES、生师比、高级职称教师比例等控制变量对学生学业成绩的影响系数结果。
  • 图  1  中小学生家长学习参与对子女学业成绩的影响机制(上:小学生 下:初中生)

    表  1  不同特征中小学生家长学习参与和学习成绩的差异分析结果

    变量类别小学五年级初中九年级
    家长学习参与学生学业成绩家长学习参与学生学业成绩
    均值标准差样本量均值标准差样本量均值标准差样本量均值标准差样本量
    性别 4.03 0.96 34961 529.02 81.15 34609 3.66 1.07 26001 512.40 87.91 25428
    4.09 0.90 30118 538.80 73.18 29908 3.64 1.02 21644 535.52 78.29 21406
    t −8.17*** −15.99*** 1.90* −29.80***
    独生子女 4.02 0.95 51317 526.06 76.98 50890 3.59 1.05 37488 515.26 82.14 36867
    4.19 0.88 13762 561.53 73.93 13627 3.86 1.03 10157 551.52 86.67 9965
    t −18.95*** −48.17*** −22.45*** −38.64***
    家庭结构 非完整 3.80 1.09 4003 515.21 84.19 3949 3.38 1.19 3537 509.19 85.15 3401
    完整 4.07 0.92 61076 534.75 77.12 60568 3.67 1.03 44108 524.06 84.29 43430
    t −17.71*** −15.34*** −16.11*** −9.90***
    住校 4.07 0.93 61727 535.63 76.66 61216 3.71 1.08 32032 516.81 83.25 31499
    3.75 1.05 3352 494.98 86.53 3301 3.52 0.97 15613 535.65 85.46 15333
    t 19.58*** 29.48*** 18.83*** −22.79***
      注:*、**、***分别表示在0.1、0.05、0.01水平上差异显著。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中小学生家长学习参与对子女学业成绩的影响

    小学模型1小学模型2初中模型1初中模型2
    固定效应 家长学习参与 3.897*** 10.525*** −1.997*** 12.416***
    (0.315) (1.760) (0.354) (1.868)
    家长学习参与2 −0.951*** −2.203***
    (0.248) (0.280)
    亲子关系 19.628*** 19.632*** 19.602*** 19.347***
    (0.576) (0.575) (0.702) (0.702)
    学习自信心 6.458*** 6.530*** 6.162*** 6.215***
    (0.289) (0.290) (0.294) (0.294)
    控制变量 Yes Yes Yes Yes
    常数 422.597*** 411.838*** 412.671*** 392.586***
    (4.866) (5.617) (7.706) (8.101)
    随机效应 学生层方差 4770.400 4769.315 5128.280 5120.814
    学校层方差 281.543 280.934 323.148 321.348
    ICC 0.056 0.056 0.059 0.059
    学生层pseudo R2 a 0.165 0.165 0.211 0.213
    学校层pseudo R2 a 0.672 0.673 0.720 0.721
    学生层样本量 62363 62363 42051 42051
    学校层样本量 268 268 119 119
      注:a. 学校层和学生层 pseudoR2(effect size)计算方法参照Snijders & Bosker(1994),下同;
    b. *、**、***分别表示系数在0.1、0.05、0.01水平上显著异于0,下同。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同亲子关系水平的中小学生家长学习参与对子女学业成绩的影响

    变量小学五年级初中九年级
    A(1)A(2)B(1)B(2)A(1)A(2)B(1)B(2)
    固定效应家长学习参与2.1264.899***16.401***3.943***6.710**−0.98215.549***−1.398***
    (2.829)(0.445)(2.467)(0.451)(3.236)(0.546)(2.434)(0.464)
    家长学习参与20.376−1.867***−1.108**−2.694***
    (0.379)(0.363)(0.460)(0.380)
    学习自信心6.555***6.586***7.363***7.228***−0.079−0.0794.839***4.853***
    (0.419)(0.417)(0.401)(0.401)(0.061)(0.061)(0.348)(0.349)
    控制变量YesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
    常数507.774***502.860***441.154***459.996***497.625***509.716***434.807***457.560***
    (7.210)(5.241)(6.729)(5.656)(9.678)(8.279)(8.975)(8.421)
    随机效应学生层方差4174.6564174.7695540.2665545.4994796.5004797.7705460.9355474.216
    学校层方差251.615251.624312.174315.080342.927343.072360.082364.059
    ICC0.0570.0570.0530.0540.0670.0670.0620.062
    学生层pseudo R20.1280.1280.1360.1350.1850.1850.1670.164
    学校层pseudo R20.6150.6150.6210.6190.6540.6540.6820.679
    学生层样本量3628636286260952609521889218892031920319
    学校层样本量267267268268119119119119
    下载: 导出CSV
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