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教育精准扶贫:“一村一园”计划乐都十周年效果评估

中国发展研究基金会“一村一园”计划课题组

中国发展研究基金会“一村一园”计划课题组. 教育精准扶贫:“一村一园”计划乐都十周年效果评估[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2021, 39(7): 107-126. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.010
引用本文: 中国发展研究基金会“一村一园”计划课题组. 教育精准扶贫:“一村一园”计划乐都十周年效果评估[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2021, 39(7): 107-126. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.010
China Development Research Foundation “One Village One Preschool” Program. Targeted Poverty Alleviation in Education: Effect Evaluation of the 10th Anniversary of Ledu “One Village One Preschool” Program[J]. Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 2021, 39(7): 107-126. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.010
Citation: China Development Research Foundation “One Village One Preschool” Program. Targeted Poverty Alleviation in Education: Effect Evaluation of the 10th Anniversary of Ledu “One Village One Preschool” Program[J]. Journal of East China Normal University (Educational Sciences), 2021, 39(7): 107-126. doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.010

教育精准扶贫:“一村一园”计划乐都十周年效果评估

doi: 10.16382/j.cnki.1000-5560.2021.07.010
  • ①2013年2月8日,国务院(国函[2013]23号)批复同意撤销海东地区和乐都县,设立地级海东市,设乐都区。
  • ②心理弹性是经历压力、挫折、创伤后机能的维持,也就是指处于危境中青年的胜任行为和有效机能。心理弹性被看作是个人的一种能力和品质,是个体从消极经历中恢复过来,并且灵活的适应外界多变环境的能力,指个体在压力事件中适应良好的过程。即一种动态过程。心理弹性既存在个体先天生物特质的差异,也受到后天环境、教育与训练的影响,它应视为个体先天与后天的“合金”。一般来说,心理弹性与适应性呈现为一种正相关,即弹性愈大,表明个体对外界环境的调控能力愈强,适应性水平愈高。一个具有较高心理弹性水平的个体,表明其在认知、豁求强度、情绪激活、应激方式以及人格特质等方面的综合品质均达到了对外界环境的最佳匹配、调控与适应,且能够以最有效的途径外化出来。
  • ③亲社会价值取向得分越高越好,个人主义价值取向和竞争价值取向相对而言得分越低越好。
  • ④乡镇幼儿园一般指乡镇私立幼儿园,乐都的乡镇公办园基本由山村幼儿园发展、扩建而来,因此乐都将所有乡镇公办园都纳入山村幼儿园管理体系。
  • ⑤考虑刚入园儿童存在“地板效应”,本次评估没有选取刚进入幼儿园的儿童,所有被测儿童均在幼儿园就学一年以上。
  • ⑥课题组对乐都山村幼儿园教师教学质量进行了评估,在4类不同类型幼儿园随机抽取了192名幼儿园教师,因县级公立园既有编制内教师和合同制教师,本次抽样包含了两类教师,比例约为7:3。
  • ⑦流体智力是一种以生理为基础的认知能力,如知觉、记忆、运算速度、推理能力等。
  • ⑧乡镇幼儿园指除了乡镇山村幼儿园(乡镇中心园)以外的其他幼儿园。

Targeted Poverty Alleviation in Education: Effect Evaluation of the 10th Anniversary of Ledu “One Village One Preschool” Program

  • 摘要: “治贫先治愚”是脱贫攻坚战的长远之计。为了促进贫困地区儿童健康发展,探索阻断贫困代际传递的有效途径,2009年,中国发展研究基金会在青海省海东地委、行署的支持下,在乐都县开展了贫困地区儿童早期发展项目,包括山村幼儿园和营养包两个项目。其中山村幼儿园项目随着规模的不断扩大、质量的不断提升、当地政府的大力推广,2016年提升为“一村一园”计划。“一村一园”计划实施10年来,已建成了村一级学前教育服务体系,显著提升了贫困地区学前教育3年毛入园率。至2019年底,乐都区学前3年毛入园率已超过98%。10年间,乐都有8705名儿童从山村幼儿园毕业进入义务教育阶段,受益家庭超过5400户。山村幼儿园保障了全县近30%的贫困农村学生,总人均成本仅为县级公立园的1/6—1/8。至2019年底,“一村一园”计划已在我国11个中西部省份的33个县广泛实施,在园儿童超过80000人,累计受益人数超过210000人。“一村一园”计划的质量和效果也比较理想,受益儿童的发展水平、心理特质、智力与学习能力等方面普遍好于未上幼儿园的儿童和乡镇幼儿园儿童,有些方面接近县级公立园。无论从受益面、成本效益、教育效果、社会影响等方面看,“一村一园”计划是教育精准扶贫的优秀项目,体现了社会公正的基本公共服务价值取向。
    1)  ①2013年2月8日,国务院(国函[2013]23号)批复同意撤销海东地区和乐都县,设立地级海东市,设乐都区。
    2)  ②心理弹性是经历压力、挫折、创伤后机能的维持,也就是指处于危境中青年的胜任行为和有效机能。心理弹性被看作是个人的一种能力和品质,是个体从消极经历中恢复过来,并且灵活的适应外界多变环境的能力,指个体在压力事件中适应良好的过程。即一种动态过程。心理弹性既存在个体先天生物特质的差异,也受到后天环境、教育与训练的影响,它应视为个体先天与后天的“合金”。一般来说,心理弹性与适应性呈现为一种正相关,即弹性愈大,表明个体对外界环境的调控能力愈强,适应性水平愈高。一个具有较高心理弹性水平的个体,表明其在认知、豁求强度、情绪激活、应激方式以及人格特质等方面的综合品质均达到了对外界环境的最佳匹配、调控与适应,且能够以最有效的途径外化出来。
    3)  ③亲社会价值取向得分越高越好,个人主义价值取向和竞争价值取向相对而言得分越低越好。
    4)  ④乡镇幼儿园一般指乡镇私立幼儿园,乐都的乡镇公办园基本由山村幼儿园发展、扩建而来,因此乐都将所有乡镇公办园都纳入山村幼儿园管理体系。
    5)  ⑤考虑刚入园儿童存在“地板效应”,本次评估没有选取刚进入幼儿园的儿童,所有被测儿童均在幼儿园就学一年以上。
    6)  ⑥课题组对乐都山村幼儿园教师教学质量进行了评估,在4类不同类型幼儿园随机抽取了192名幼儿园教师,因县级公立园既有编制内教师和合同制教师,本次抽样包含了两类教师,比例约为7:3。
    7)  ⑦流体智力是一种以生理为基础的认知能力,如知觉、记忆、运算速度、推理能力等。
    8)  ⑧乡镇幼儿园指除了乡镇山村幼儿园(乡镇中心园)以外的其他幼儿园。
  • 图  1  4种不同类型幼儿园儿童发展情况对比

    图  2  留守儿童与非留守儿童在各项发展指标的对比

    图  3  不同教育水平(高中、大专、本科)教师的课堂质量对比

    图  4  是否学前教育专业教师的课堂质量对比

    图  5  教师的学前教育专业和幼儿园教龄对课堂质量评分的影响

    图  6  4种不同类型幼儿园学习环境和教育质量的对比

    图  7  4种不同类型学前教育学生心理弹性比较

    图  8  4种不同类型学前教育学生亲社会行为比较

    图  9  家庭境况及满意度对亲社会行为的影响

    图  10  4种不同类型学前教育学生智力测验结果比较

    图  11  4种不同类型学前教育学生学业成绩比较(2017)

    2017年乐都区小升初成绩组间比较(百分位/平均分数线)

    图  12  4种不同类型学前教育学生学业成绩比较(2018)

    2018年乐都区小升初成绩组间比较(百分位/平均分数线)

    图  13  4种不同类型学前教育学生学业成绩比较(2019)

    2019乐都区小升初成绩组间比较(百分位/平均分数线)

    图  14  乐都区“一村一园”及在园儿童数量变化

    表  1  乐都区被试儿童基本情况

    性别
    565(52%)521(48%)
    民族少数民族汉族
    397(37%)689(63%)
    留守儿童
    424(39%)662(61%)
    平均值标准差最大值最小值
    年龄4.360.9572
    理解性词汇19.9312.75891
    表达性词汇33.5716.63881
    认知发展12.296.80281
    社会情感发展8.704.31171
    动作发展5.621.5471
    语言和读写发展11.735.67301
    健康卫生与安全8.802.69110
    文化意识与参与6.132.29160
    学习品质3.432.2471
    执行功能18.3117.03600
    儿童发展总分75.5035.071531
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同类型幼儿园儿童基本特点

    儿童人数平均年龄男孩比例少数民族儿童比例留守儿童比例
    县级公立园2104.2150.95%43.33%14.29%
    山村幼儿园4924.4552.85%33.74%54.47%
    县级私立园724.3152.78%33.97%36.54%
    乡镇幼儿园3124.3451.28%47.22%16.67%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  乐都处境不利儿童交叉表

    贫困单亲贫困+单亲仅留守
    留守7.00%9.21%1.75%29.83%
    非留守7.72%2.03%0.31%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  乐都“一村一园”处境不利儿童交叉表

    贫困单亲贫困+单亲仅留守
    留守11.42%13.77%3.40%41.04%
    非留守10.49%1.04%0.62%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同类型幼儿园教师特点比较

    县级公立园山村幼儿园县级私立园乡镇幼儿园
    样本数量(人)35841251
    教师年龄(岁)29302627
    教师教龄(年)7.28.96.14.4
    学前教育教龄(年)6.97.66.14.1
    工资(元)2782231922502000
    教师效能感得分168.1163.5160.2158.1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同类型幼儿园教师学历分布

    县级公立园山村幼儿园县级私立园乡镇幼儿园
    大学学历38.6%25%31.7%11.8%
    大专学历35.7%50%41.7%39.2%
    中专学历25.7%25%26.6%49.0%
    中专以下学历(不含中专)
    幼教专业比例82.9%87.5%83.3%80.4%
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  不同类型学前教育学生智力发展水平

    幼儿园类型样本(人)智力等级分布(%)
    低下中下中等良好优秀
    县级公立园814.516.434.335.89.0
    山村幼儿园3346.518.440.826.48.0
    其他幼儿园71611.119.236.825.87.1
    未上幼儿园24811.730.847.59.20.8
    下载: 导出CSV
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